He’s a longtime buddy of the president, a detailed political ally for many years who’s now the federal government’s high human rights official.

And he has been spied on, repeatedly.

Alejandro Encinas, Mexico’s below secretary for human rights, was focused with Pegasus, the world’s most infamous spy ware, whereas investigating abuses by the nation’s army, in keeping with 4 individuals who spoke with him in regards to the hack and an impartial forensic evaluation that confirmed it.

Mexico has lengthy been shaken by spying scandals. However that is the primary confirmed case of such a senior member of an administration — not to mention somebody so near the president — being surveilled by Pegasus in additional than a decade of the spy instrument’s use within the nation.

The assaults on Mr. Encinas, which haven’t been reported beforehand, severely undercut President Andrés Manuel López Obrador’s pledge to finish what he has referred to as the “unlawful” spying of the previous. They’re additionally a transparent signal of how freewheeling the surveillance in Mexico has turn out to be, when nobody, not even the president’s allies, seems to be off limits.

Pegasus is licensed solely to authorities companies, and whereas there’s no definitive proof which one carried out the hack of Mr. Encinas’s telephone, the army is the one entity in Mexico that has entry to the spy ware, in keeping with 5 folks conversant in the contracts. Actually, the Mexican army has focused extra cellphones with the know-how than any authorities company on this planet.

Mr. Encinas has lengthy been at odds with the armed forces. He and his workforce have accused them of being concerned within the mass disappearance of 43 college students, one of many worst human rights violations within the nation’s latest historical past.

His cellphone has been contaminated a number of occasions — as just lately as final 12 months whereas he was main a authorities reality fee into the abductions — giving the hackers unfettered entry to his complete digital life, in keeping with the 4 individuals who have mentioned it with him.

Pegasus was wielded towards a few of Mexico’s most outstanding journalists and democracy advocates a number of years in the past, igniting a global scandal that stained the earlier administration.

Nonetheless, the assaults on Mr. Encinas are in contrast to something Mexico has witnessed.

“If somebody as near the president as Alejandro Encinas is focused, it’s clear there’s no democratic management over the spy instrument,” mentioned Eduardo Bohorquez, the director of the Mexican chapter of Transparency Worldwide, an anti-corruption group.

“There’s no checks and balances,” he added. “The army is a superpower with zero democratic oversight.”

Mr. Encinas didn’t reply to a number of requests for remark. The Mexican president and the Mexican protection ministry didn’t reply to requests for remark, both.

Pegasus can infect your telephone with none signal of intrusion and extract every thing on it — each e mail, textual content message, photograph, calendar appointment. It might watch by your telephone’s digicam or pay attention by its microphone, even when your telephone seems to be turned off.

Individuals who spoke with Mr. Encinas in regards to the hacks mentioned he realized the small print of the infections after they had been confirmed by Citizen Lab, a watchdog group based mostly out of the College of Toronto. It carried out a forensic evaluation of his telephone that has not been made public.

The group additionally discovered proof that Pegasus had infiltrated the telephones of two different authorities officers who work with Mr. Encinas and have been concerned in inquiries into rights violations by the armed forces, three folks with information of the hacks mentioned.

Citizen Lab declined to remark.

The Israeli producer of Pegasus, NSO Group, opened an investigation into cyberattacks on human rights defenders in Mexico after latest experiences by The New York Occasions in regards to the army’s use of the spy ware, in keeping with an individual conversant in the NSO compliance investigations.

The corporate additionally started trying into the assaults on Mr. Encinas and his two colleagues after The Occasions requested about these hacks, the particular person mentioned.

In a press release, NSO mentioned that it doesn’t function particular person Pegasus programs however “investigates all credible allegations of misuse,” including: “Previous NSO investigations have resulted within the termination of a number of contracts concerning the improper use of our applied sciences.”

The hacking has put Mr. Encinas and the president in a tricky place. In early March, Mr. Encinas met with Mr. López Obrador to speak in regards to the spying and whether or not to go public with it, in keeping with a number of folks briefed on the dialog.

However Mr. Encinas has stored quiet about his Pegasus an infection since, they mentioned.

Over the summer time, he and his workforce revealed an explosive report in regards to the 43 college students’ disappearance that accused the army of taking part in a task, calling the occasions “a criminal offense of the state.”

Then, questions emerged in regards to the proof, and Mr. Encinas got here below intense scrutiny — particularly after he admitted in an interview with The Occasions that key items of the inquiry had been “invalidated.”

Legal professionals representing army officers implicated within the case referred to as for his resignation and sued him for falsifying proof. All through, Mr. López Obrador has stood by Mr. Encinas, calling him “an exemplary public servant in whom we have now all our confidence.”

The 2 males have been political companions for greater than twenty years; Mr. Encinas served in Mr. López Obrador’s cupboard when he grew to become mayor of Mexico Metropolis in 2000.

“Andrés is my buddy, he’s my companion,” Mr. Encinas was quoted as saying in 2011. “We’re a part of a workforce and a challenge.”

However since Mr. López Obrador took workplace, the 2 males haven’t at all times been aligned on the rising energy of the army.

The nation’s armed forces have vastly expanded their authority below Mr. López Obrador, accumulating broad management over policing in addition to a formidable slate of different actions, together with constructing a lot of a 1,000-mile railway and an airport, distributing medication and managing ports and customs.

Mr. Encinas has been one of many few folks keen to criticize the army from contained in the administration.

When troopers killed 5 folks in northern Mexico this 12 months, Mr. Encinas mentioned publicly that the unarmed males had been “executed” by the military.

The president hasn’t tamped down his assist of the armed forces. Regardless of mounting proof of the military misusing Pegasus, Mr. López Obrador has continued to disclaim that any spying is occurring.

“We don’t spy on anybody,” Mr. López Obrador mentioned in March. He added: “It’s an act of dishonesty and lack of ideas to be spying.”

When the Israeli Ministry of Protection licenses the sale of Pegasus to authorities companies, they have to signal agreements to make use of the surveillance instrument solely for preventing extreme crime or terrorism, in keeping with three Israeli protection officers.

NSO is now trying into whether or not the usage of Pegasus in Mexico violated that settlement.

Dealing with two lawsuits in the US by Apple and Meta, WhatsApp’s guardian firm, NSO is below extra stress than ever to display that it’s imposing its personal guidelines. The Biden administration additionally blacklisted the Israeli firm in 2021, involved about how Pegasus was used to “maliciously goal” dissidents internationally.

NSO appealed the choice, however as a part of the method, the corporate is hoping to indicate that it’s stopping abuse.

A senior govt at NSO mentioned that the corporate had disconnected 10 purchasers after they broke the phrases of their contracts. One in all them, the emir of Dubai, used Pegasus to spy on his ex-wife, in keeping with public courtroom information.

If NSO confirms that Mr. Encinas and others had been focused for no reputable cause by the Mexican army, the corporate might instantly shut down the establishment’s entry to Pegasus.

Publicly, Mr. López Obrador’s stance has not modified. After The Occasions revealed how the Mexican army grew to become the world’s first — and most prolific — person of Pegasus, the president mentioned the armed forces “are respectful of human rights and don’t do spying like earlier than.”

Emiliano Rodríguez Mega contributed reporting from Mexico Metropolis.